Measures to Assess Wellbeing in Low-Carbon-Dioxide Cities

Word cloud of wellbeing indicators
Word cloud of wellbeing indicators


Boyko, C. T., Cooper, R., & Cooper, C

Policies aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions often focus on the need to change existing behaviours and social practices as well as to provide technological advances in energy supply, waste, transport, industry and infrastructure. While fundamentally important to the mitigation of climate change, little is written about the impact that achieving carbon dioxide reduction targets, particularly for the built environment, will have on individual and societal wellbeing and quality of life. This paper investigates how a set of measures can be developed to assess wellbeing in cities, both as they are at present and as they transition to ‘low-carbon-dioxide’ futures. It outlines the important relationship between wellbeing, low-carbon-dioxide development and the built environment. A strategy for obtaining and assessing wellbeing measures is explained, the measures are discussed and 100 selected measures are detailed. The paper ends by illustrating how these measures can be integrated into a wider study of wellbeing.



Boyko, C. T., Cooper, R., & Cooper, C. (2015). Measures to assess wellbeing in low-carbon-dioxide cities. Urban Design and Planning.
Urban Design and Planning
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers